Monday, August 24, 2020

Incomplete research project Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Fragmented research venture - Essay Example The guests thusly will be glad to pay a sensible sum as an end-result of the administrations. That’s how the friendliness business capacities. With the rise of large inn networks neighborliness appeared as an industry in itself. This examination is a push to break down how The Goodwood Park Hotel has had the option to exploit the globalization and expanding financial exercises. In the previous occasions, travel to far away places used to take a very long time to years, and it required coarseness and assurance with respect to the swashbucklers to investigate the other piece of the world, and on the off chance that they could live longer enough to return to their local land, they would portray the superb spot that they could see, which thus would urge others around to take a brief trip and see those spots. Till the time Wright siblings gave the world a flying machine, the greater part of such voyages used to happen with the assistance of boats, by walking, on camelback or riding a horse. During those occasions individuals used to embrace travel as a piece of exchange and business and the colleague used to deal with the guests. However, continuously, the undertaking of colleague was made simpler by the cordiality business, and such visits began increasing enough force after the planes were squeezed into administration. The inn business succeeded with the expan ding financial trades and participation in exchanges and administrations. Cordiality and the travel industry actually implies doing the business action by taking great consideration of our visitors, with the assistance of offices like agreeable remain, quality administrations, clean dinners, better correspondence, transportation and so forth. Neighborliness is all inescapable and has gotten fundamental to the billion dollar industry and an upsurge in worldwide financial exercises. This investigation is being completed with a point of investigating how the neighborliness

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Plastic recycling

Plastic reusing Heaps of good data! Heaps of research went into it nonePlastic RecyclingThere are numerous techniques for making materials that are named plastic. Various synthetics, most are oil based, are utilized for making plastic. A short history and an outline of a portion of the numerous techniques for creating plastic pieces is given beneath. (plasticmatrix)Although plastics have been around for quite a long time, the preparing of man-made assortments is a moderately current wonder. The principal infusion shaping machine was licensed in the 1870's and along with profile expulsion, came into normal business use during the 1930's. Pressure forming had created about 10 years sooner. Blow shaping, as we probably am aware it today, didn't create until the 1940's.Other handling strategies, for example, rotational embellishment, didn't come into utilization until the 1960's, and the preparing of reused plastics, similar to the innovation utilized in the creation of plastic wood, grew uniquely in th e 1980's.English: Injection forming embed expelled from die...Plastic crude materials are generally isolated into 2 sorts: product evaluation and designing evaluation. Product grade gums are all the more broadly utilized and incorporate polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene and PVC (polyvinyl chloride).Engineering level saps are commonly progressively hard to process however have qualities which make them alluring for particular use. A portion of the more broadly utilized building level thermoplastics are acetal, ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), nylon and polycarbonate. A portion of the contemplations for crude material choice incorporate effect quality, high and low temperature attributes, warpage, protection from bright light and the amicability of the material to printing or adhesives.Plastic saps are additionally extensively named either thermoplastic or thermoset. Thermoplastic tars can be remelted in the wake of preparing. Streak and dismissed parts can be reground an d added to virgin pitch for reprocessing. Thermoset plastics, commonly utilized in pressure embellishment and SMC forming, can't be remelted. When handled, in the event that they are...

Sunday, July 19, 2020

4 Facts About E-Cigarettes You Need to Know

4 Facts About E-Cigarettes You Need to Know More in Addiction Nicotine Use After You Quit How to Quit Smoking Nicotine Withdrawal Smoking-Related Diseases The Inside of Cigarettes Alcohol Use Addictive Behaviors Drug Use Coping and Recovery As of Dec. 20, 2019, the new legal age limit is 21 years old for purchasing cigarettes, cigars, or any other tobacco products in the U.S. E-cigarette research is underway, but much still needs to be learned about this smoking alternative, including the effects it has on health over the long term. We do know that traditional cigarette smoke contains upwards of 7,000 toxins, including 250 poisonous and 70 cancer-causing chemical compounds. No level of secondhand cigarette smoke is considered safe to breathe. E-cigarette emissions, on the other hand, contain far fewer toxins, in part because the vapor is not a byproduct of burning organic matter, but of heating the nicotine-containing liquid, which causes it to vaporize. While e-cigarettes are advertised as less hazardous than traditional cigarettes, much is unknown and theyre definitely not harmless. Lets take a closer look at the issues you should be concerned with if youre thinking about using e-cigarettes as a smoking alternative or a quit aid. 1. Electronic Cigarettes Are Not Regulated   In the United States, tobacco products that are regulated must adhere to strict rules imposed by the  U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).   These include:   Requiring manufacturers to register existing products and report product ingredients.New products must be reviewed and approved by the FDA before going on the market.Claims that products offer a reduced health risk must be backed up by science that the FDA confirms and also agrees that the product offers a benefit to society as a whole.Tobacco products  cannot be sold or given as samples to minors. Currently, regulated tobacco products include  cigarettes, cigarette tobacco, smokeless tobacco, and roll-your-own tobacco. The FDA plans to extend its umbrella of control over more tobacco products soon. They are  e-cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco, nicotine gels, hookah tobacco, and dissolvables. These products would be subject to the rules noted above and would also have to include health warnings, not be sold in vending machines at locations that are accessible to children, and adhere to minimum age and I.D. restrictions for sales. How Lack of Regulation Hurts Consumers The current lack of regulation on e-cigarettes means that you cant trust that the product youre buying contains the amount of nicotine it claims to, or that it is produced with any quality control. Pharmaceutical grade nicotine is used in all U.S. NRT products, but consumers cant count on that with unregulated tobacco products. Similarly, information on packaging regarding nicotine-free cartridges cannot be trusted. They may, and often do contain nicotine. This is especially bad if youre using e-cigarettes as a quit aid and trying to decrease nicotine gradually to zero. Finally, the quality of electronic cigarette devices themselves vary widely, which can affect vapor composition and toxicity. 2. E-Cigarettes Contain Some Surprising Toxins In a study reviewing available information about e-cigarette liquid, cartridges, vapor, and exhaled emissions, authors noted the presence of a number of  toxins in varying amounts, including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, o-Methyl benzaldehyde,  acetone,  volatile organic compounds, phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.   While the amounts of these chemicals are much less in e-cigarettes than in traditional cigarettes, there is a risk of exposure to some of the same chemicals that are hazardous in cigarette smoke.   TSNAs E-Cigarette liquid and vapor has been shown to contain TSNAs, a group of four chemical compounds that are thought to be some of the most potent carcinogens in tobacco products and tobacco smoke. TSNAs are present in green tobacco and processed tobacco, including liquid nicotine. TSNAs are associated with lung cancer, oral and esophageal cancer, liver cancer and pancreatic cancer. There is growing evidence that TSNAs may contribute to cervical cancer. Heavy Metals Researchers studying e-cigarette emissions have identified chromium, a metal not present in cigarette smoke, as well as a number of other heavy metals that are, including zinc and lead. The concentrations are much lower than in traditional cigarette smoke  but are not zero.  Nickel is present in levels 4 times higher than in regular cigarette smoke. It appears that the metals probably come from the cartridges and that standardizing the quality of their construction may reduce these toxins. 3. E-Juice Is Poisonous The active ingredient in e-cigarettes and the reason people use them is nicotine, and nicotine is a poison.  It has been used in insecticides for years and is the addictive ingredient in both cigarettes and e-cigarettes. According to a CDC study that reviewed calls to poison centers across the United States involving e-cigarette liquid containing nicotine, the incidence of accidental poisoning has skyrocketed in the last few years as e-cigarettes have gained in popularity. There was just one call per month pertaining to liquid nicotine in September of 2010 and 215 calls per month by February of 2014. Approximately half of the calls involved children under the age of 5 being exposed to e-cigarette liquid, and 42 percent from people over the age of 20. E-liquid comes in several sweet, candy flavors, which is appealing to kids. Poisoning occurs when nicotine-laced e-liquid is inhaled, ingested or absorbed through the skin or eyes. In an effort to reduce these poisonings and curb the epidemic use of e-cigarettes among youth, the FDA is requiring e-cigarette companies to cease manufacturing and selling flavored vaping products (other than menthol and tobacco) by the end of January 2020.   In December  2014, what may be the  first death of a child due to liquid nicotine  occurred in upstate New York state when a one-year-old who ingested liquid nicotine died soon after. Local police didnt confirm that the liquid nicotine was associated with e-cigarettes, however, it is likely. And, earlier in 2014, a  puppy in Britain got hold of an e-liquid cartridge  and was dead within hours of chewing through it and ingesting a small amount of the liquid. 4. E-Cigs Are a Smoking Alternative, Not a Quit Aid Its probable that e-cigarettes will be a regulated product in the future. When that occurs, its also likely that a physician designed and endorsed regimen for smoking cessation using electronic cigarettes will eventually become available. When and if that happens, consumers will be able to count on a consistent level of manufacturing quality and nicotine quality and content. They will also have a program for stepping down and off of nicotine completely, which is the purpose of any quit aid. People are already using the e-cigarette as a means to quit nicotine altogether, and some are achieving success with it. On the flip side, many e-cigarette users either transfer their addiction from tobacco to the device  or eventually go back to smoking traditional cigarettes full-time because theyre still actively addicted to nicotine. If youre thinking of using the e-cigarette to quit smoking, do some research first on the quit aids available on the market today  and have a discussion about them with your doctor, who can offer advice on the best choice for you.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Rise Of The Roman Empire - 1864 Words

Julius Caesar , a Roman general and statesman he turned the Roman republic into a powerful Roman Empire. A coup ended his reign , and his powerful life , on the Ides Of March. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey formed a political alliance that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power through populist tactics were opposed by the conservative ruling class within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar s victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome s territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused the order, and instead marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with a legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman Italy under arms. Civil war resulted, and Caesar s victory in the war put him in an unrivaled position of power and influence. After assuming control of government,Show MoreRelatedThe Rise Of The Roman Empire973 Words   |  4 Pagessee how empires grew and became successful. Many empires were so successful because of their leaders and their philosophies. Empires often had good runs and would be running successful until a stronger and more powerful empire would bring them down. One empire that was known as the most advanced both socially and politically in the western civilization was the Roman Empire. At about 285 CE the empire was so greatly advanced that the Roman central government could no longer rule the empire on its ownRead MoreThe Rise Of The Roman Empire2740 Words   |  11 Pagesone thing comes to mind, the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire was one of the greatest empires of all time. The span of the Roman Empire grew from itself outward to the countries of England, Africa, Spain, and even Syria. The Roman Empire covered a vast area of land, with ambitions of continued growth. The Roman Empire rose to glory in 27 BC. The rise of the Roman Empire began with its military forces and its many emperor’s reign. The society and life of Romans were also affected by the empire’sRead MoreThe Rise Of The Roman Empire Essay1875 Words   |  8 PagesConstantine was the first Roman Emperor to convert to Christianity. He started his reign in 307 AD. During this time the Roman Empire was still composed mainly of pagans. Although the population of Christians was on the rise, in the beginning of the fourth century, Christians made up only 10 percent of the population in the Roman Empire. There were approximately five million Christians in the Roman Empire meaning that they were still the minority (Waldron). His conversion was an important turningRead MoreThe Rise Of The Roman Empire1494 Words   |  6 Pagescentral Europe and occupied by several Celtic tribes in pre-Roman times. The land was claimed by the Roman Empire once the Celtic tribe Noricum fell to the Empire and became a providence. Once the Roman Empire gained control of the area, it soon set up a Military camp on the eastern side of the providence calling it the Upper Pannonia providence which was the home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire; Charlemagne, King of the Franks, had control of the land atRead MoreThe Rise Of The Roman Empire2506 Words   |  11 PagesOne of the greatest empires to have existed in ancient human history is undoubtedly the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire maintained very sophisticated governmental policies. Not only were they responsible for groundbreaking political systems, Rome was very technologically advanced as well. Rome would lay a foundation for civilizations to come with the innovative political and technological breakthroughs they experienced. Unfortunately for Rome, the higher the rise also meant the harder the fall. RomeRead MoreThe Rise Of The Roman Empire2137 Words   |  9 Pagesas the Roman Empire was nearly compromised after the German Visigoths and their leader, Alaric, invaded it in 410 AD. This invasion of the newly Christian Empire that was supposed to be invincible shattered the confidence of the Romans and subsequently led them to question the power of their new single God. The Roman Empire has previously been a Pagan empire, but Constantine the Great converted the empire to Christianity less than a century before the Visigoths captured Rome. Many Romans were skepticalRead MoreThe Rise Of The Roman Empire1428 Words   |  6 PagesThe Roman Empire is widely regarded as one of, if not the most dominant government to ever exist. Early civilization in Europe was dominated by the Romans, and their constantly growing empire. With the help of Greek political ideas, the Romans adopted one very similar where supreme power is held by the people from their elected representatives. These representatives were a part of the Senate, where all political laws were made and enforced, very similar idea to the type of Senate that existsRead MoreThe Rise Of The Roman Empire1224 Words   |  5 Pagesinfluence to affect the Roman world. Constantine came to power in the Western provinces of the Roman Empire as an advocate of religious toleration. Constantine’s advocacy for religious toleration alongside his conversion marks a turning point of the Roman world and drives the spread Christianity. With Diocletian’s abdication in 305 A.D., Constantine’s troops acclaimed him as Caesar. The age of persecution began in 303 A.D. under Diocletian as an effort to rid the Roman Empire of Christians. It wasRead MoreThe Rise Of The Roman Empire863 Words   |  4 Pagesanyone who did not speak Greek. During the decline of the Roman Empire, many barbaric tribes took the opportunity to attack. The migration of barbarians closer to Rome put stress on an already stressed Roman government. The increased tension eventually lead to an outbreak of wars. In 410 Rome was sacked by the Visigoths—lead by Alaric—and was attacked again in 455 but the Vandals (â€Å"Dining With Attila the Hun, 448†). Attacks on the Roman Empire by the Huns did not start until the middle of the 5th centuryRead MoreThe Rise Of The Roman Empire1611 Words   |  7 PagesRome was an empire with extremely high aspirations and expectations from. Its founders chose to steal women from neigh boring villages, in order to grow its population. These aggressive and expansionary ideologies remained within the personalities of every Roman, living inside the great empire 755 years later. And yet despite its vast military presence and growing cities and towns, the Roman Empire and its capital still succumbed to a barbarian takeover. This was widely regarded as one of the greatest

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Core Competencies For Entering Medical Students - 1658 Words

One of the AAMC Core Competencies for entering medical students involves cultural competence: Demonstrates knowledge of socio-cultural factors that affect interactions and behaviors; shows an appreciation and respect for multiple dimensions of diversity; recognizes and acts on the obligation to inform one s own judgment; engages diverse and competing perspectives as a resource for learning, citizenship, and work; recognizes and appropriately addresses bias in themselves and others; interacts effectively with people from diverse backgrounds. Discuss a specific experience from your life that you feel demonstrates your cultural competence. I do have one specific experience in mind, however, I would like to first delve into my cultural background that will shed light on how gained my cultural competence. Though I was born in Detroit and am a first-generation American, I always strongly identified with my Romanian heritage. My parents escaped from communist Romania and found a community of fellow Romanians seeking solace here in Michigan. There is a saying: â€Å"It takes a village to raise a child,† and that could not be truer of the family that raised me. They have imbued me with the harsh life lessons learned from living underneath a dictatorship and the struggle of starting life from scratch after their escape. One characteristic brought on by my Romanian upbringing was respect for others. In Romanian culture, it is incredibly important to respect your elders as well asShow MoreRelatedThe Nurse As A Nurse Educator906 Words   |  4 PagesNew nurse educators are not only challenged to develop individual teaching styles; they must additionally identify strategies to prepare students to function in a complex medical environment. A nurse who is proficient in clinical practice is not necessarily proficient in teaching clinical skills to others and new nurse educators transforming into their new role often discover they are not as prepared as they would hope to be. In order to accommodate the needs of the adult learner, nurses need toRead MoreNurse Educators Essay1676 Words   |  7 Pagesstrategies for working smarter, not harder; and develop a career plan for success as a nurse educator† (Billings, 2013). The webinar started by discussing the role of the nurse educator, at which point Boyer’s four pillars of scholarship and the NLN core competencies were discussed. Billings (2013) mentioned how educators are leaders who engage in scholarship in order to develop the changing role of the nurse. She encouraged getting certified as a nurse educator to promote advancement. The next topic ofRead MoreA Interview On The Health Of Nurse Practitioner Faculties2108 Words   |  9 Pagespractice. This paper will review the competencies set forth by the National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties (NONPF). In order to better grasp how an APN implements the use of such competencies, an interview has been conducted with a leader in the profession. This interview was done in person with the use of a tape recorder while the interviewer took notes. To better understand just how instrumental these competencies are to the profession, the APN student must be able to see how it is usedRead MoreHow Paralegals Is Qualified Through Training, Education, And Work Experience Essay1435 Words   |  6 Pagesever-changing sociocultural world in which we all live. Paralegals have a variety of duties and responsibilities. Paralegals perform the same tasks as supervising attorneys; the supervising attorney and courtroom appointed authority dictate the competency of the paralegals’ ability to perform specific tasks. Due to the complexity of the law profession paralegals must be analytical, intelligent, logical, and organized. Additionally paralegals’ should have an undeviating thoroughness and accuracy,Read MoreGender Differences Between Associate And Baccalaureate Degree Levels1637 Words   |  7 Pagespursue a career in a female dominated field. Moreover, by eliminating the comparison of male and female students, omitting gender differences between associate and baccalaureate degree levels, and comparing nursing programs from various regions will bring about the necessary and crucial change the nursing field is in dire need for. However, by eliminating the comparison of male and female students; nursing schools are unable to distinguish the elite from the amateur slackers. Omitting gender differencesRead MoreGender Differences Between Associate And Baccalaureate Degree Levels1639 Words   |  7 Pagespursue a career in a female dominated field. Moreover, by eliminating the comparison of male and female students, omitting gender differences between associate and baccalaureate degree levels, and comparing nursing programs from various regions will bring about the necessary and crucial change the nursing field is in dire need for. However, by eliminating the comparison of male and female students; nursing schools are unable to distinguish the elite from the amateur slackers. Omitting gender differencesRead MoreThe Development Of The Paralegal Advocacy Essay1498 Words   |  6 Pagesto legal secretaries or other legal support workers.† Paralegals have a variety of duties and responsibilities. Paralegals perform the same tasks as supervising attorneys; the supervising attorney and courtroom appointed authority dictate the competency of the paralegals’ ability to perform specific tasks. Due to the complexity of the law profession paralegals must be analytical, intelligent, logical, and organized. Additionally paralegals’ should have an undeviating thoroughness and accuracy,Read MoreThe Success Of Its Core Competencies3720 Words   |  15 Pagessuccess of Crocs through its core competencies and the analysis of our recommendations. Crocs has been a phenomenal success and there are two reasons that can be attributed to this—our Croslite technology and supply chain. By using different marketing theories such as Porter’s 5 forces and the marketing mix theories, we have uncovered the reasons why Crocs have decided to invest in these strategies. The recommendations raised in this report are aime d to utilise the core competency raised above and exploitRead MoreThe Future of Nursing1402 Words   |  6 Pagesurges nurses to become full partners with doctors and other healthcare professionals in order to provide the leadership needed to redesign the healthcare system in the United States. Not every nurse entering the field imagines that he or she will be a leader, and because of that †¦leadership competencies need to be embedded throughout nursing education and a culture that †¦promotes and values leadership needs to be fostered. In the future more nurses need to prepared to take more classes and achieveRead MoreNurse Practitioners : Potential Standard For Advanced Practice Registered Nurses2426 Words   |  10 Pagesethical practices and the unique emphasis on the wellbeing of the whole person helps NPs to guide patients in making more effective health and lifestyle choices. NPs are encouraged to continue learning to promote professional development and clinical c ompetency (Hamric et al., 2013). NPs also serve roles as nursing leaders and health educators in their communities and practice settings (Wilson, Pearson, Hassey, 2002). They practice in rural, suburban, and urban communities, and in settings such as urgent

Meiosis and Genetic Diversity in the Model Organism Free Essays

4 November 2013 Section 24 TA- Erik Ohlson Meiosis and Genetic Diversity in the Model Organism, Sordaria flmicola Introduction Research groups from the Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine and the Institute of Evolution at the University of Haifa have been studying the model organism, Sordaria fimicola, in regards to controlling cross over frequency in response to environmental pressures. Sordaria fimicola is a good model organism because it has a fast life cycle and elongated asci that are easily seen under a microscope. In addition, there are multiple different combinations of ascospore olors due to recombination during meiosis. We will write a custom essay sample on Meiosis and Genetic Diversity in the Model Organism or any similar topic only for you Order Now Evolution Canyon is the research model for this experiment because of its exceedingly differing slopes. The South facing slope (SFS) receives high temperatures and droughts due to the high solar radiation. On the other hand, the North facing slope (NFS) exhibits shadier, cooler, and more humid climates. Asexual filaments were collected from either slope and grown in the lab. Wild type spores(black spores) were acquired from self-cross between the asexual filaments and spore color mutants (tan spores) were obtained from wild type trains that produced non-black spores that arose spontaneously within each population. They made crosses with wild type vs. tan spores from differing slopes (NFS-SFS) and found that cross over frequencies between the differing slopes was great (Hass and Ward, 2010). Contrary to previous belief, cellular mechanisms were influenced by environmental conditions; this tells us that differing environments can lead to different recombination frequencies. In our part of the experiment, we created a control where the spores were grown under the same optimal lab conditions. The combinations of ascospores we observed include, 4:4, 2:2:2:2, and 2:4:2. During meiosis, 4 ascospores are produced after crossing over occurs. Then the spores undergo a series of mitosis where 8 spores are then created. In a 4:4 recombination, there could either be 4 tan then 4 black or 4 black than 4 tan. In the 2:2:2:2, there could be tan, black, tan, black or vice versa. In the 2:4:2, there could be tan, black, tan and so on. Therefore, 6 different combinations asci classes can occur. Our goal for this experiment was to identify the different spores, cross over frequency, and mapping distance. However, there were challenges in preparing the squashes, and then identifying the different spores. Methods We divided the petri dish into four sections, where the wild black type samples were diagonal from each other and the tan type samples were also diagonal from each other hyphae side down onto mating agar to increase the possibility of crossing over to occur. After two weeks, using an inoculating loop, we scraped some perithecia from the center of the dividing lines where we believed crossing over occurred. We then placed them on slides with a drop of water to observe the crossing over requencies under a microscope. Pressure was applied to the coverslip in order to release the asci from within the perithecia in order to count the frequency of each asci type. To calculate cross over frequency and map distance, we used the formulas: 1. % Cross Over=( # of recombinant asci/ total # asci) x 100% 2. Map Distance= % cross over/ 2 *Note that map distance accounts for all spores, but in our experiment only half crossed over, we divide by 2. Results Table 1. Individual Data. This illustrates the number each recombination found within our picture we were provided. Non-recombinant Recombinant Total # of Asci Total # Recombant Asci (B+C) # of Type A Asci # of Type B Asci # of Type C Asci 8 5 3 4 Table 1 illustrates the number each recombination found within our picture we How to cite Meiosis and Genetic Diversity in the Model Organism, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

The Holy Trinity And The Isenheim Altarpiece Essays - Christian Art

The Holy Trinity and The Isenheim Altarpiece A.P. Art History # II: Masaccio: The Holy Trinity Grunewald: The Isenheim Altarpiece (closed) The Holy Trinity by Masaccio was done approximately 1428. It is a superb example of Masaccio's use of space and perspective. It consists of two levels of unequal height. Christ is represented on the top half, in a coffered, barrel-vaulted chapel. On one side of him is the Virgin Mary, and on the other, St. John. Christ himself is supported by God the Father, and the Dove of the Holy Spirit rests on Christ's halo. In front of the pilasters that enframe the chapel kneel the donors (husband and wife). Underneath the altar (a masonry insert in the painted composition) is a tomb. Inside the tomb is a skeleton, which may represent Adam. The vanishing point is at the center of the masonry altar, because this is the eye level of the spectator, who looks up at the Trinity and down at the tomb. The vanishing point, five feet above the floor level, pulls both views together. By doing this, an illusion of an actual structure is created. The interior volume of this 'structure' is an tension of the space that the person looking at the work is standing in. The adjustment of the spectator to the pictured space is one of the first steps in the development of illusionistic painting. Illusionistic painting fascinated many artists of the Renaissance and Baroque periods. The proportions in this painting are so numerically exact that one can actually calculate the numerical dimensions of the chapel in the background. The span of the painted vault is seven feet, and the depth is nine feet. "Thus, he achieves not only successful illusion, but a rational, metrical coherence that, by maintaining the mathematical proportions of the surface design, is responsible for the unity and harmony of this monumental composition." Two principal interests are summed up by The Holy Trinity: Realism based on observation, and the application of mathematics to pictorial organization. All of the figures are fully clothed, except for that of Christ himself. He is, however, wearing a robe around his waist. The figure is "real"; it is a good example of a human body. The rest of the figures, who are clothed, are wearing robes. The drapery contains heavy folds and creases, which increases the effect of shadows. The human form in its entirety is not seen under the drapery; only a vague representation of it is seen. It is not at all like the 'wet-drapery' of Classical antiquity. Massacio places the forms symmetrically in the composition. Each has its own weight and mass, unlike earlier Renaissance works. The fresco is calm, and creates a sad mood. The mood is furthered by the darkness of the work, and the heavy shadows cast. Grunewald's The Isenheim Altarpiece is an oil painting on wood, completed in 1515. The altar is composed of a carved wooden shrine with two pairs of movable panels, one directly in back of the other. The outermost scene is the Crucifixion; on the inside there are two others. On the two sides, two saints are represented (St. Sebastian on the left, and St. Anthony on the right). Together, these saints established the theme of disease and healing that is reinforced by the inner paintings. On the bottom of the panel, when opened, it appears that Christ's legs were amputated; possibly an allusion to ergotism, a disease treated in the hospital where the altarpiece was kept. An image of the terrible suffering of Christ is in the middle. The suffering body hangs against the dark background, which falls all the way to the earth. The flesh is discolored by decomposition and is studded with the thorns of the lash. His blackening feet twist in agony, as do his arms. His head is to one side, and his fingers appear as crooked spikes. The shuddering tautness of Christ's nerves is expressed through the positions of his fingers. Up to this point, no other artist has ever produced such an image of pain. The sharp, angular shapes of anguish appear in the figures of the swooning Virgin and St. John, and in the shrill delirium of the Magdalene. On the other side, John the Baptist, a gaunt form, points a finger at the body of the dead Christ. Even though death and suffering are dominant in the altarpiece, there are symbols of hope: The river behind St. John, which represents baptism, and the wine-red sky which symbolizes the blood of Christ. Through these